As promised I will post here about new and exciting researchers dealing with
If Demetris does not mind I will post a working paper here soon.
As promised I will post here about new and exciting researchers dealing with
If Demetris does not mind I will post a working paper here soon.
VACANCY: SENIOR RESEARCHER
The PRIO Cyprus Centre is seeking an experienced Cypriot researcher.
The International Peace Research Institute, Oslo (PRIO) was one of the first centres of peace research in the world when it was founded in 1959. The PRIO Cyprus Centre (PCC) opened in September 2005.
The PCC focuses on research about issues and developments relevant to the Cyprus problem and to its eventual settlement. The Centre’s aim is to contribute to an informed public debate on such matters. It seeks to do this through dissemination of the findings and analysis offered by its bi-communal research team as well as various activities directed at facilitating dialogue.
Among the topics currently researched at the PCC are the property issue, migration and settlers, attitudes towards reconciliation, human rights and minority rights, civil society, economic development, gender and peace, environment, sustainable diplomacy and history teaching. The PCC is constantly identifying new research areas. (For more information see www.prio.no/cyprus)
The PCC has a vacancy for one Cypriot researcher from 1 June 2008 onwards, for at least 1 year. The candidate must:
Hold a higher academic degree and have solid research experience;
Have track record of publishing in international peer-reviewed journals;
Be fluent in English and Greek (knowledge of Turkish an advantage)
Have good presentation and dissemination skills
Be capable of securing funding for research projects.
Remuneration will be in accordance with academic experience.
Applicants should forward by email to email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org
A letter of expression of interest;
An up-to-date CV (including a list of publications and information on grants obtained if any);
An outline of a proposed research project (1500-2000 words)
The deadline for the application is Monday 10th March 2008. A confirmation of receipt will be sent within two working days. Short-listed candidates will be notified by 19th March.
This is a work in progress that I just presented at the LSE. The comments were very helpful: They have given me so much to think about. What was clear was that
It has long been known that dyslexics are drawn to running their own businesses, where they can get around their weaknesses in reading and writing and play on their strengths. But a new study of entrepreneurs in the United States suggests that dyslexia is much more common among small-business owners than even the experts had thought.
The report, compiled by Julie Logan, a professor of entrepreneurship at the Cass Business School in London, found that more than a third of the entrepreneurs she had surveyed — 35 percent — identified themselves as dyslexic. The study also concluded that dyslexics were more likely than nondyslexics to delegate authority, to excel in oral communication and problem solving and were twice as likely to own two or more businesses.
“We found that dyslexics who succeed had overcome an awful lot in their lives by developing compensatory skills,” Professor Logan said in an interview. “If you tell your friends and acquaintances that you plan to start a business, you’ll hear over and over, ‘It won’t work. It can’t be done.’ But dyslexics are extraordinarily creative about maneuvering their way around problems.”
The study was based on a survey of 139 business owners in a wide range of fields across the United States. Professor Logan called the number who said they were dyslexic “staggering,” and said it was significantly higher than the 20 percent of British entrepreneurs who said they were dyslexic in a poll she conducted in 2001.
She attributed the greater share in the United States to earlier and more effective intervention by American schools to help dyslexic students deal with their learning problems. Approximately 10 percent of Americans are believed to have dyslexia, experts say.
One reason that dyslexics are drawn to entrepreneurship, Professor Logan said, is that strategies they have used since childhood to offset their weaknesses in written communication and organizational ability — identifying trustworthy people and handing over major responsibilities to them — can be applied to businesses.
“The willingness to delegate authority gives them a significant advantage over nondyslexic entrepreneurs, who tend to view their business as their baby and like to be in total control,” she said.
William J. Dennis Jr., senior research fellow at the Research Foundation of the National Federation of Independent Business, a trade group in Washington, said the study’s results “fit into the pattern of what we know about small-business owners.”
“Entrepreneurs are hands-on people who push a minimum of paper, do lots of stuff orally instead of reading and writing, and delegate authority, all of which suggests a high verbal facility,” Mr. Dennis said. “Compare that with corporate managers who read, read, read.”
Indeed, according to Professor Logan, only 1 percent of corporate managers in the United States have dyslexia.
Much has been written about the link between dyslexia and entrepreneurial success. Fortune Magazine, for example, ran a cover story five years ago about dyslexic business leaders, including Richard Branson, founder of Virgin Atlantic Airways; Charles R. Schwab, founder of the discount brokerage firm that bears his name; John T. Chambers, chief executive of Cisco; and Paul Orfalea, founder of the Kinko’s copy chain.
Similarly, Rosalie P. Fink, a professor at Lesley College in Cambridge, Mass., wrote a paper in 1998 on 60 highly accomplished people with dyslexia.
But Professor Logan said hers was the first study that she knew of that tried to measure the percentage of entrepreneurs who have dyslexia. Carl Schramm, president of the Kauffman Foundation, which financed the research, agreed. He said the findings were surprising but, he said, there was no previous baseline to measure it against.
Emerson Dickman, president of the International Dyslexia Association in Baltimore and a lawyer in Maywood, N.J., said the study’s findings “just make sense.”
“Individuals who have difficulty reading and writing tend to deploy other strengths,” Mr. Dickman, who has dyslexia, said. “They rely on mentors, and as a result, become very good at reading other people and delegating duties to them. They become adept at using visual strengths to solve problems.”
Mr. Orfalea, 60, who left Kinko’s — now FedEx Kinko’s — seven years ago, and who now dabbles in a hodgepodge of business undertakings, is almost proud of having dyslexia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
“I get bored easily, and that is a great motivator,” he said. “I think everybody should have dyslexia and A.D.D.”
He attributes his success to his difficulty with reading and writing because it forced him to master verbal communication.
“I didn’t have a lot of self-confidence as a kid,” he said. “And that is for the good. If you have a healthy dose of rejection in your life, you are going to have to figure out how to do it your way.”
He said his biggest advantage was his realization that because of his many inadequacies, he had to delegate important tasks to subordinates. “My motto is: Anybody else can do anything better than me,” he said.
Danny Kessler, 26, also has dyslexia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Mr. Kessler founded Angels with Attitude, which holds seminars for women on self-defense. He is a co-founder of Club E Network (www.clubenetwork.com), which sponsors “networking events,” runs an online chat room for entrepreneurs and produces television shows about them.
Like Mr. Orfalea, he said he had low self-esteem as a child, and now views that as a catapult into the entrepreneurial world. “I told myself I would never be a lawyer or a doctor,” he said. “But I wanted to make a lot of money. And I knew business was the only way I was going to do it.”
In high school, Mr. Kessler said, “I became cool with the teachers. I developed a rapport with them. I was able to convince almost all of them to nudge my grade up just a bit. I adopted a strategy for squeezing through the system.”
As for the importance of entrusting tasks to others, Mr. Kessler says his limitations have endowed him with a “razor sharp” intuition that allows him to ascertain within minutes of meeting people whether he can depend on them and what they would be good at in an organization.
Drew Devitt, 45, who also has dyslexia, said he started Thoughtware Products in college to produce videos for real estate brokers. Today, he runs a successful $9 million company in Aston, Pa., called New Way Air Bearings that makes bearings for precision machine tools.
Asked about mentors, Mr. Devitt ticks off a list, and it is a long one, beginning with his parents, who sold imported bearing materials out of their home.
Indirectly, he confirmed that he gives free rein to his deputies. Asked about the claim on his company’s Web site that it is a “market leader,” he sighed. “That’s not something I would say,” he said. “Actually, it’s baloney. But that’s what our marketing people came up with. You can’t do everything. You have to let people do their job.”
A Great Resource that is untapped in terms of Greek and especially Cypriot Historiography is the Ionian Bank Archives held at my university, the LSE. The resource has been fully digitised for all archives form 1839 to 1918 - substantial collections exist for
Both National statistical offices were post-war institutions. The pre-cursors of the Maltese National Statistical Office (NSO) and the Cypriot Στατιστική Υπηρέσια (Υστατ) were established in 1947. The first national accounts were published in 1954 – but in
There were some attempts to estimate national income prior to 1954, but no effort none was sufficient or explicit enough in their methodology.
Other GDP estimates for sporadic years exist, especially for
Overall none of the above estimates provide their methodology in order to be able to reproduce their results. I have yet to find any GDP estimates of Maltese income prior to 1954.
My thesis plans to reduce the knowledge gap in the economic history of
I am currently concentrating in using published government sources of the time. Extensive archival work has also taken place in
The Data sources for
It is worth noting that it is not necessarily true that the availability and quality of data is greater as one gets closer in time to the first estimates of national income. During the first half of the twentieth century there were frequent changes in definitions, altering what was being measured. Some of these changes (for example the definition of a Dwelling in the 1947 Census) create rather than eliminate problems for HNA creation. The quality of data in
Being British dependencies, both
Accuracy of the censuses:
Occupation statistics underreport the gainfully employed population, as well as persons employed in agriculture. There is an even greater underreporting of women in employment, especially in the rural areas.
Examples of such underreporting can be found in the 1931 Census. Only 56% of the Male population is considered to be gainfully employed, with more than 11% of the male population in “Unknown Occupation” and 16% in “Persons without Occupation”. A staggeringly low percentage of the female population is considered to be gainfully employed (20%), with 35% of the female population in “Unknown Occupation” and 34% in “Persons without Occupation”.
The Maltese census questionnaire was given to every head of household to fill, subject to a fine if the questionnaire was not returned. Thus the probability for spurious answers was high, considering that over 60% of the population in
Thus any attempt to use occupation statistics derived from the censuses for HNA purposes should be treated with great caution. The data on occupation should be seen as indicative rather than definitive. In my own attempts to create HNAs I have avoided using occupation data as much as possible, but it seems that some use of the occupation data is necessary to estimate production in the service and handicraft sectors of the economy.
A majority of the questions asked by the census takers which are of interest for HNA construction are very similar over time. Significant improvements took place in the 1921, 1931 and 1946 census where additional questions on secondary occupation, housing and ownership were introduced. An example of such change is the change in the definition of what constitutes a dwelling in the 1921 and the 1946 census, which makes using 1946 data to calculate dwelling stock difficult. These improvements are not always compatible with previous censuses; thus care is needed in comparing census data over time.
New data tables were added in each census. By 1946 the Census was extensive and covered a large array of issues:
The 1948 Maltese Census did not look much different as most of the questions were similar. The largest difference between the Cypriot and the Maltese census was the lack of an agricultural census in
The Cypriot Agriculture census provides information about farm holding sizes, irrigated land, crop bearing trees (especially carob and olive yields) and other agricultural yields not covered by the statistical Blue books (aniseed and cherries). The 1946 census also provides a historical perspective; it offers a four-year moving average of prices and output for the ten most important agricultural products of
Going further back in time the basic categories of population, literacy, age, aliens, infirmity and dwellings are given, but less information is given both in terms of detail as well as in terms of breakdown.
By far the most important source of data for
The Colonial blue books combine data from all government departments into one published source, and were published yearly. Some of the sections most relevant to HNA construction are listed below. The sections numbering is from the 1931 Cyprus Blue; the Maltese Blue book of 1931 is similar except it has an additional section on military expenditure as the last section. Blue books prior to 1921 have fewer sections, but most of the information relevant to HNA creation is present.
Section 1: Taxes Duties and other sources of revenue
· A detailed description of every tax, duty or fee levied by the government. i.e. Barley duty: 3 copper piastres to the counterweight. (1 copper piaster to a penny)
Section 3: Government Revenue and Expenditure (comparing why it rose or fell)
· Comparing each tax with the revenue of the previous year and stating the cause of decrease. i.e. Import duties decreased by £51263 in 1931 due to the “general trade depression and decline in commodity prices”
Section 7: Municipal corporations and other Public Bodies
· Revenue and expenditure of each municipal body
Section 8: Public Works
· Expenditure in roads, public buildings and harbours
Section 12: Civil Establishment
· The position and wage of all permanent staff in government.
Section 15: Population and Vital Statistics
· Based on the latest census figures, the government estimated persons employed by sub-district in agriculture, manufacture or commerce. Also provides number of people who came and left the island, an estimate of the total population and infantile mortality in districts and towns.
Section 19: Currency, Banking, Weights and Measures
· List of gold, silver and bronze coin in circulation as well as paper money in circulation. There is a list of every bank operational in
Section 20: Imports and Exports
· Statement of value and quantity imported and exported, as well as the duty or tariff collected (per item). This is specific to product and by country – an all together exhaustive account of yearly imports and exports.
Section 21: Shipping
· Number, tonnage, and crews of vessels entered and cleared (separated into steam ships and sailing vessels). This is broken down by country of destination and by country of ownership. The section includes ships involved in the coasting trade in a separate table.
Section 22: Production and Natural Resources
· This is by far the most important section in terms of creating HNAs. This section provides the acres and quantity produces for the 9 most important crops. After 1931 this expands to include a total of 26 crops, effectively encompassing all cultivated crop production. The only significant exceptions are in the production of carobs, olives and olive oil, wine (although the quantity of grape quantity produced is provided from 1931) and citrus fruits.
· This section also provides the annual number of livestock, and the yield of animal produce (except meat) and their average farm value.
· It provides detailed forestry and fishery information.
· It provides mining information such as and the total value of ore as well as its metallic content.
· It provides a list of the most important industrial establishments; the number of persons employed the cost of raw material uses, the output produced and the net selling value (prices at the factory door).
This is by far the most important section of the blue book. The basis of my HNA creation effort will be based on this information.
Section 23: Labour Wages and cost of living
· It provides the average wage rates for several jobs including domestic service
· It provides for the average, maximum and minimum retail price of staple articles of consumption in the capital (
· It provides the average monthly export rates (f.o.b) of staple products of the country
Section 30: Savings Banks and Friendly Societies
· Provides a list of Savings banks and Co-operative societies with the authorised capital and the value of their deposits
Section 32: Railways, Tramways, Steamship services, Roads, Motor Transport
· It provides through cost and revenue of publicly run Railroads and tramways, as well as the numbers of cars registered and road mileage available to road traffic.
Section 33: Post, Telegraph and Telephone statistics
· Provides detailed revenue of cost and volume of letters, telegrams, and calls.
Most importantly, the blue books already provide enough information for volume estimates to be created for agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining and manufacturing. In the case of manufacturing value added estimates are provided from 1931 onwards.
The blue books are by far the most extensive yearly data source on
The greatest weakness of the blue books is the lack of information on prices and wages. Despite some information on the highest, lowest and average prices of staple goods in the islands’ capitals, as well as some information on wages, there is not enough price data to be able to create good deflators. A cost of living index was not introduced in
In the Cypriot government archive, I found handwritten and thus unpublished Blue books for 1941, 1944 and 1946. They provide information on production, wages, and government revenue during the war, thus allowing for an understanding of the economy and possible HNA creation at a time of complete lack of data publication.
The annual colonial report is a valuable yearly overview of the situation in a colony for the given year. Its highest value is its provision of a qualitative feel of how the economic situation of the island was perceived by the colonial bureaucrats. A yearly estimate of population, as well as birth and death rates is provided. The derivation of yearly estimate on population is unclear; comparing it to the population returns in census years, the government estimate has a margin of error of plus or minus 4.5%. There is no actual data on migration, but some data on permissions issued to enter and exit the island are provided. However an attempt to estimate the population of
Some sporadic data on tourism are also given, but again without explanation on how the data was derived. Some sporadic data on costs to British officials staying in
Every government department published an annual report covering a wide range of issues as an annual review; the yearly statistical blue book and the annual colonial reports are effectively based on these reports. Some, such as the customs and excise annual report, do not provide any additional information not accounted in the blue books. Others, such as the Mining commissioners yearly report, the Agricultural department report and the public works department report provide valuable information excluded from the blue books. Unfortunately although published, such reports were not necessarily saved by libraries; however for most years the original manuscript is in the respective national archive.
Information provided includes the cost of construction of roads per mile, the monthly wage rate of workers per district, a bi-annual livestock survey, and some sporadic estimates of value added in agriculture and mining. As with the basic categories of expenditure, cost and wages per department are given. However as one goes further back in time less information is given both in terms of detail as well as in of breakdown. Also some information is not collected until a relevant government department is set up, as was the case for the mining department in
Other important data sources for
The Archives in
Other possible sources of data for HNA estimation includes tax data. I have not yet looked into this in detail; but the lack of income tax in both
Taxation data published in the blue books and in the annual report of the Land Registration and Survey department might allow calculations is estimating the capital stock, especially since property tax was based on early modern period laws, which counted all property, including orchards, as taxable property.
The British colonial era in
Since the first attempt in establishing HNAs for
Agathangelou, A., Mortality In
Christodoulou, D., 1992, Inside the
Dean, P., 1948, Colonial National Incomes: An experiment
Georghalides, G., 1979, A political and Administrative History of
Kostellenos, G. C., 1995 Money and Output in Modern
Maddison, A., 1995, Monitoring the World Economy
Oakden, Sir Ralph, 1934, Report of the finances and economic resources of
Prados de la Escosura, L., 1993,
Surridge, B. J. A Survey of Rural Life in
Veropoulou, 1997, The Demography of Cyprus Ph D. London School of Economics
Maddison Angus, World Population, GDP and Per Capita GDP, 1- 2003 AD: http://www.ggdc.net/maddison
National Statistical Office,
 The experiment involved estimating national accounts for Nyasaland, Jamaica and Northern Rhodesia; however due to standardisation of basic published statistical material as demanded by the colonial office, the published material used in this exercise also exists for Cyprus and Malta.
Department of Economic History
Development Economist, Chairman
This paper is a preliminary introduction of
Anyone who writes about farming is likely to be writing critically of the way the farming is carried out… government reports are aimed at seeking weaknesses and correcting them: the speeches and writings of political leaders… are aimed at stressing the effect of bad weather or wrong policy; and even the farmer themselves are usually writing with the idea of securing easier credit or better prices and therefore paint the gloomiest possible picture. With such a background one is apt to overlook the big achievements of the Cyprus Farmer, who in the face of great climatic and political handicaps has for many centuries supported a considerable population and has established a remarkable range of products.
D. A. Percival, Superintendent of the Census 1946 p.59
This paper is an attempt to provide longer term perspective of Cypriot agricultural development than previously attempted. It is part of an ongoing effort to estimate the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for the period 1921 – 1939. The paper has omitted the livestock sector due to data constraints; research for this sector is ongoing and it will be introduced at a latter date.
Over the period 1921 – 2000 agriculture in
Perhaps the most pessimistic portrayal of Cypriot agricultural prospects was provided by Mayer, writing around the time of the declaration of independence in 1960. Mayer dramatically stated that “
Although Mayer’s comments are unusual in their severity, there was a consensus by contemporary writers that Cypriot agriculture was pivotal to future development. The sector was underperforming: the low productivity of agricultural workers, the lack of an adequate system of agricultural credit, the low rate of capital accumulation, and the fragmented system of land tenure were emphasized as the main problems. The fact that the island was a net importer of food and that its agricultural products were not internationally competitive further highlighted how the agricultural sector was inhibiting the development of
Percival ‘s comment in the 1946 agricultural census encapsulates that the practical focus of the literature resulted in concentrating on the problems of agriculture; this evaluation of the agricultural sector of Cyprus over an eighty year period allows a more optimistic assessment of its contribution to the economy as a whole.
The paper attempts to merge existing published data on agriculture, which is scattered and segmented, and standardize them throughout the eighty year period in order to evaluate the sectors’ performance. Colonial period and early independence data are standardized as far as possible to current weights and practices. However both data availability and reliability deteriorate as one moves further back in time. Periods of particularly poor data availability are in 1921 – 1931 (when less data was published), and 1955 – 1960 (a period of an anti-colonial struggle and communal strife known as “the emergency”).
The paper is divided in four distinct time periods, bounded by important events in the history of Cypriot agriculture:
· The interwar period (1921 – 1938)
· The Second World War and
· The period of rapid economic growth and invasion (1960 – 1974)
· The period of recovery, and relative decline (1975 – 2000)
Whenever possible, comparisons will be made of results with neighboring
Figure 1 compares the share of Agriculture in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in both
Estimates of the output share of agriculture for the period 1921 – 1949 do not exist, but an indication of the importance of agriculture for the period is possible by comparing the proportion of actively employed population in agriculture as provided by Figure 2. By 1946 the proportion of male and total active population in agriculture in
Despite the above
The period was difficult for Mediterranean countries; most of the countries in the
The steep drop in prices after the First World War was particularly serious for farmers in the plains and coastal drylands, who where primarily cultivators of grain (mainly wheat and barley). For farmers that were reliant on grain for the majority of their income the interwar period was one of compounded distress; the end of the 1921 recession found such farmers heavily in debt, facing stiff competition from imported flour.
The most important products in the interwar period were wheat, barley and carobs, while the cultivation of tobacco, cotton and flax were encouraged by the colonial authorities. A volume index for the eighty year period is currently compiled; however a compilation of an index of production (without corresponding price data, which is currently unavailable) allows us a partial analysis of trends of agricultural production. The volume index indicates that in the majority of the 13 products with a complete series for the period 1921 -1938, four had an overall decrease (wheat, barley, cheese, wool). Figure 5 exhibits the volume indexes of 6 major products.
This decrease of output of wheat and barley are particularly important since the total market value (in current prices) of the combined wheat and barley production dropped by over 39% between 1920 – 1924 and 1930 – 1934, and did not fully recover to its pre-1924 level by 1939. Despite a slight drop in acreage of both grains, wheat and barley remained the most significant crops in terms of output and acreage: in 1938 they still constituted 53% of total cultivated area.
The years 1931 – 1932 must have been particularly difficult for Cypriot grain farmers; the steep drop in grain prices during the world depression coincided with a serious drought in
Contemporary reports confirm the dire situation. Both Surridge and Sir Oakden in 1930 and 1934 respectively highlighted that the main burden of the falling product prices fell on the wheat farmer. However in some areas of
Of particular importance for
The expansion of tobacco is important in the period. A rapid increase of both the area cultivated and output produced occurred particularly towards the end of the 1920s. However output was very volatile and subject to violent swings. In 1921 volume of output was at 38.3% of the 1938 level; by 1934 volume of output was 44 times larger than 1938; limited access to the main tobacco export markets due to increased protectionism in major markets led to its decline in 1938. However,
Likewise crops that were actively promoted as export staples by the Colonial authorities did not dominate agricultural production. Cotton production only constituted a maximum 4.5% of the area cultivated throughout the period and exhibited a cyclical output related to rainfall conditions. Flax and Hemp remained very small and localized industries; output remained low and exports were insignificant.
Figure 4 is a comparison of wheat and barley yields of
In this period the Cypriot economy received a tremendous boost due to the Second World War. A shortage of food and raw materials in the
During the war years 1939-1945 the Cyprus economy was integrated into the wartime economic strategy of the Middle East Supply Centre, the primary aims of which were to minimize the use of shipping for civilian goods, to minimize hardship on populations caused by the reduction in overseas imports, and to utilize regional sources of goods for the war effort. The effect was a general rise in prices: average prices during the 1940 - 1945 were higher for wheat (80%), barley (176%), tobacco (294%), potatoes (66%), carobs (61%), olives (297%), and grapes (298%). However production suffered due to the combination of low rainfall and the lack of previously imported agricultural inputs (especially chemical fertilizers). Output of barley and wheat in 1944, which was greatly dependent on chemical fertilizers, fell by 56% and 45% compared to 1938, despite a slight increase of the total area cultivated Out of 30 products, only citrus fruit, tobacco, potatoes, flax fibre, haricot beans, tomatoes, taro (kolokassi) and sponges show higher levels of output than in 1938. The increase in most of these products was due to the co-ordination of regional demand by the Middle East Supply Centre, allowing
Thus the increase in agricultural production was more a phenomenon of the latter stages of the war, when shortages of imported agricultural inputs eased. In this period wheat production increased much faster than barley, perhaps due to the existence of a 32% price gap established by government subsidization polices. Onions exhibited a 10% increase in 1946, despite production of onions dropping by 49% of their 1938 output in 1944. Potatoes, unlike barley and wheat, show an increase of output both in 1944 and 1946, increasing output by 28% and 54.6% respectively of the 1938 level. The general increase in output also affected less important products; by far the largest increase in output was of aniseed that grew by 3178% during the period 1937 to 1946, possibly due to the increased demand for spirits.
The post war development of agriculture was rapid; the GDP share of agriculture grew slightly less than the rest of the economy at 4.6% per annum. The economy as a whole exhibited a faster rate of growth than agriculture for the first half of the 1950s; but economic conditions deteriorated during the Emergency of 1955 to 1959.
During this period the co-operative movement reached its maturity: Co-operatives for credit, retail trade, and marketing managed to break the dependence of agricultural producers on money lenders. Agricultural loans more than tripled and deposits grew five-fold. Marketing co-operatives were established for cherries, lemons, apricots and cereals and a large co-operative winery was established. By 1960 co-operative societies were marketing 50% of the total agricultural market production. The growth of the co-operative movement is seen as correcting the institutional infrastructure to allow faster growth in agriculture in this period. An additional factor in this progress was a ten year development plan implemented between 1946 and 1956. It included provision for electricity, roads, communications, health and water supply which led to significant increases in agricultural productivity, especially due to irrigation works that allowed an expansion of citrus output and deciduous fruits.
Products in high demand during the war expanded their output after its end; oranges and vegetables (especially tomatoes), as well as potatoes and tobacco increased their volume (and value) shares in total agricultural production. Potatoes became a significant export as well as the second largest item in terms of output after viniculture. Deciduous fruits, citrus and melons showed explosive growth, partly due to the development of new water resources.
Much of the expansion of the agricultural sector was in irrigated crops, and the perennially irrigated area accounted for 8.7% of the cultivated land in 1960, as against 6.5% in 1955.Citrus output in 1958 was ten times greater than in 1933, while productivity per acre was comparable to Israel. Food processing industries produced 58% of industrial gross output, but these industries accounted for only about 4% of GDP. Crop production and animal husbandry had a 60% - 70% value added as a proportion of gross output, as compared to only 20% for the economy as a whole. Thus agriculture in this period was not stagnating; it was largely keeping pace with the growth of the economy as a whole.
Economic growth for the period up to 1973 was very rapid in real terms with low inflation. Rather surprisingly the agricultural sector matched this overall growth in GDP as shown in Figure 1. However agricultural productivity relative to other sectors was low; in 1960 agriculture contributed 17.6% of GDP (constant 1967 prices), while it still employed 44% of the labour force (Figure 2) partly due to part-time agricultural employment gradually becoming the norm. Crops under irrigation, which can increase the productivity per acre by a factor of eight, doubled. Fodder crops were expanded to meet the needs of the livestock sector; however by 1972 crop production was still the most important sub-sector producing 64% of the value added of agriculture. The period saw a rapid increase of exports; by 1972 the value of agricultural exports grew to a third of agricultural gross output. Almost all these exports were from crop production, the main items being potatoes, citrus, table grapes. In part these exports were encouraged by an ability to produce early potatoes and table grapes for the
The 1974 invasion and its aftermath created a very serious situation for the Cyrpiot economy as a whole and the agricultural sector in particular, which lost much of its resource base, as 37% of the islands’ area was occupied. Substantially developed agricultural areas such as the large irrigated areas of citrus groves in Morphou and
The period from 1977 into the 1980’s was one of continuous rapid economic growth. However agriculture output failed to expand as rapidly as the previous period despite the accelerating mechanization of the sector. From 1975 to 2000 the economy of
In the agricultural sector the emphasis was on resettling displaced farmers and expanding irrigation; by 1985 the level of agricultural production was on par to the level of production of 1972 (despite the loss in acreage). From 1975 onwards employment in agriculture fell at an average rate of 6% per year; by 2000 only 24,000 people were actively employed in agriculture with 75% of farmers having agriculture as a secondary occupation. Relative productivity vis-à-vis the whole economy was still low; by 2000 the income differential widened to its 1975 level.
The application of
Looking at the role of Cypriot agriculture in a longer timeframe allows us to have a more optimistic view of its contribution to the economy as a whole. Overall output has been growing; the Second World War and the invasion in 1974 transformed the role of agriculture within the
The resilience of Cypriot agriculture lies mainly in the flexibility in capitalizing market and taste trends by altering its product mix. This resulted in cyclical changes of the most dynamic products: cereals, carobs, citrus fruits, vegetables and potatoes exhibit different periods of rapid growth and relative decline during the period. In the interwar period the effects of the falling prices of agricultural products, especially during the depression, were serious especially for dry land farmers mainly dependent on their income on grain; however the effects on wine growing areas of Limassol and Paphos were less marked. Over the period agriculture has played a significant role in economic development, but with the reduction of its resource base in 1974 it has declined in importance for the economy and now has to adjust to effects of the free market and the common agricultural policy of the European Union.
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